Author ORCID Identifier

Hayat M. Itani - https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9307-708X


This study sought to develop a new architectural design methodology for educational facilities. The design factors of inclusive schools built environment affect the self-efficacy of students with special needs. Self-efficacy being defined by Albert Bandura as one's belief in one's ability to succeed completing specific tasks in a certain environmental action. This research is conducted by following the sequential explanatory research design, surveyed by a mixed method. Participants were a group of 35 special education teachers and 25 students with special needs, conveniently selected from some schools in Lebanon. The two questionnaires and the individual interviews administered by the researcher formed the outcome of the study. Findings ascertain the importance of suitable school architecture, for the sake of increasing the self-efficacy of students with special needs in order to enhance special education standards in Lebanese schools. The Reciprocal Method is a new deterministic design framework in architecture that seeks for innovative design in educational facilities in direction of universal standards.


Architecture, Self-efficacy, Inclusive School, Architectural Universal Design Standards, Architecture Design Methodology, Special Education, Human-Centered Design


Architecture | Arts and Humanities | Education | School Psychology | Special Education and Teaching



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