The urban development of the central area of Makkah city during the last decade concentrated on the expansion of the holy mosque and residential projects which increase the density while it neglected to provide urban open spaces which are considered as an essential element of the urban fabric. At the same time existing urban open spaces lack the basic requirements and suffer from the unacceptable density comparing with the international standards which affect users' safety and security. This study which follow the analytical, descriptive approach and depends on literature review and field data, will explore the existing situation of the urban open space and identify the peak times and calculate densities and discuss future development to introduce the design principles which will improve the quality of the Urban Open Spaces in Makkah Central Area. مقدمة
Architecture | Arts and Humanities | Education | Engineering
إدريس, محمد بن عبد الله
"Design Principles for Urban Open Spaces in Makkah Central Area,"
Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ): Vol. 22:
1, Article 13.