English Title



Patients, Medical students, Clinical education, Procedures, Examination, Lebanon


Educational Methods | Medical Education | Medicine and Health Sciences


Medical practice revolves around patients’ safety and ensuring their well-being. Patients’ cooperation with medical students in their examination and management is an indispensable aspect of clinical education. They have the right to accept or refuse the participation of students in their care. However, students need to be integrated in this learning process. This presents a conflict between patients’ healthcare rights and medical students’ learning opportunities. Therefore, this study aims to explore patients’ attitudes towards the participation of medical students in procedures and examinations in Lebanon and identify the factors that affect their participation. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a 34-item questionnaire in Arabic language that was distributed via WhatsApp online platform among the Lebanese adult population in the different governorates during January and February 2021. A total of 729 participants with a mean age of 30.8 completed the survey. Overall, participants showed a positive attitude towards medical students’ involvement in their care. It was noted that 61.7% were knowledgeable of their right to accept or refuse medical students’ participation in procedures. Participants showed a great acceptance towards medical students’ presence in outpatient clinics (71.74%), reading medical files (80.24%), and history taking (81.6%). However, their negative attitude was towards the student’s involvement in performing genital/rectal examination (54.5%), giving an epidural injection (69.7%) and prescribing medications (53.2%). Patient’s medical condition was the main reason that influences participants’ decisions about medical students’ presence during their procedures (43.8%). A positive attitude towards medical students’ participation in procedures and examinations was reflected by the Lebanese population. Patients’ medical conditions, personalities and religious beliefs were the main reasons affecting participants’ decisions.

Author ORCID Identifier

Rim Taleb - ORCID: 0000-0001-8046-3467

Racha Ftouni - ORCID: 0000-0003-0979-2190

Malak Abdel Khalek - ORCID: 0009-0008-0004-1167

Lama Uweis - ORCID: 0000-0002-7476-5319

Ali Yassine - ORCID: 0009-0000-2134-7044

Hussein Shoumar - ORCID: 0000-0001-8890-4335



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