Urban Evolution and morphology, road network evolution and morphology, topography, unorganized country, GIS, sustainability, remote sensing


Engineering | Other Civil and Environmental Engineering | Transportation Engineering | Urban, Community and Regional Planning


This study examines the morphology and evolution of urban and road networks and their relationship with topography in the Lebanon-Nabatiyeh area, by using GIS and remote sensing data. and calculate the annual urban growth percentage rate. The results reveal a clear relationship between the morphology of urban and road networks and their evolution over four periods, as well as the influence of the surrounding topography on their configuration. The study recommends that urban areas should be developed in areas with a slope range of 15º or more to improve the urban structure and infrastructure surrounding them. Understanding the evolution and morphology of urban and road networks is essential for urban planners and policymakers to design efficient and sustainable urban development. Future research should use the method employed in this study and supplement it with the creation of a land suitability map using GIS and remote sensing technology to improve current urban planning protocols. The study provides helpful insights for urban developers, planners, and designers in creating successful approaches to urban development and management.

Author ORCID Identifier

Amal Al Ghorayeb https://www.orcid.org/0000-0001-8789-8121

Adel Elkordi http://www.orcid.org/0000-0002-1487-8469

Ghaleb Faour https://www.orcid.org/0000-0002-0741-0518

Zeinab Jaber https://www.orcid.org/0009-0008-8478-3140

Youssef Attallah http://www.orcid.org/0009-0009-4334-4122





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