Cultivated Salvia fruticosa, GC-MS, Antioxidant activity, Total phenolic content, Total flavonoid content, Total carbohydrate content, Total protein content


Life Sciences


As part of the efforts contributing towards encouraging the cultivation of commercially valuable medicinal and aromatic plants and the conservation of vulnerable wild species suffering from depletion due to destructive unsustainable harvesting from the wild, we set out to assess the in vitro antioxidant activity, decipher the phytochemical profile, and evaluate the hemolytic activity of Salvia fruticosa Miller cultivated at Beirut Arab University herbal garden in Bekaa, Eastern Lebanon. The chemical compositions of the methanolic, aqueous and essential oil extracts were assessed by GC-MS analysis. In addition, the total phenolic, total flavonoid, total carbohydrate and total protein contents were determined for the methanolic and aqueous extracts. The antioxidant activity of all samples was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, superoxide radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. The overall analysis of data revealed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited potent antioxidant activity while the essential oil showed weak activity. Furthermore, strong correlation was found between the antioxidant activities and phytochemicals content. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the essential oil and extracts against human erythrocytes was assessed using the hemolysis assay. The aqueous extract did not show any hemolytic effect within the used concentration range. On the other hand, the methanolic extract showed a weak hemolytic activity, while the essential oil showed high hemolytic activity at the highest concentration used. The collective analysis of the data offered an encouraging evidence for the cultivation of commercially valuable medicinal aromatic plants (MAPs) such as S. fruticosa Miller as a supportive measure for the Lebanese economy.

Author ORCID Identifier

Sarah Karneeb: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9700-4344

Safaa Baydoun: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1820-4995

Hatem Nasser: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9669-040X

Nelly Arnold-Apostolides: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0866-0156

Mohammad H. El-Dakdouki: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0679-2267



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