Waterpipe, Health effects, Bacterial contamination, Topography, Policy and regulations


Architecture | Business | Engineering | Physical Sciences and Mathematics


Waterpipe popularity has increased significantly in the recent decades to become the major cause of death worldwide. This practice, which is also known as hookah, shisha and Narghile that is based on tobacco burning, increases the percentage of tobacco smokers especially among young people, due to several factors such as the attracting effect of sweetened tobacco, the marketing role and the social acceptance of waterpipe. A literature review was constructed using "Pub med" as a searching tool to confirm by studies the differences in adverse effects between waterpipe and cigarette by analyzing the toxicant’s levels generated from them, evaluating the smoke volume which is affected by the duration of smoking, the puffing intensity, and investigating the factors which enhance the toxicity of waterpipe such as the type of the hose and charcoal used during smoking practice. In addition, highlighting the misconceptions regarding the protective effect of water bubbling which has been considered to be a filtering factor for removing several toxicants, showing the type of microorganisms which colonize the different parts of waterpipe device and how they can be transmitted between smokers, focusing on their health hazards and their effects on waterpipe smokers. Finally, emphasizing the importance of specific regulatory policies in controlling the widespread of waterpipe preventing its dangerous consequences and saving human life





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