English Title

Perceptions of politics in Lebanon


Perceptions, organizational politics, leader, locus of control, cooperation, satisfaction, turnover, SMEs


Business Administration, Management, and Operations | Leadership Studies | Organizational Behavior and Theory | Organization Development


Purpose – This study aims to investigate the nature of the relationships between three variables (leader-member exchange, locus of control and co-worker cooperation) and two employee outcomes (job satisfaction and turnover intention). It also examines whether these relationships are mediated by perceptions of politics.

Design/methodology/approach – Survey data was obtained from 300 employees from Lebanese SMEs located between Tripoli and Beirut. Mediation was tested using Baron and Kenny (1986)’s framework.

Findings – Results revealed that leader-member exchange and co-worker cooperation are positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intention. Locus of control, on the other hand, is negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to turnover intention. Also, perceptions of politics partially mediated some of these relationships while it fully mediated others.

Originality/value – This study extends research on organizational politics to Eastern cultures by examining SMEs in a country like Lebanon. It also attempts to explain inconsistency in the literature by adding a mediating variable to the model of determinants and employee outcomes. That is, it suggests that the effect of leader-member exchange, locus of control and co-worker cooperation on outcomes is through the mechanism of perceptions of politics.



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