English Title

Lebanese Community Pharmacists’ Compliance during COVID-19


COVID-19; prevention and control; community pharmacy; Lebanon.


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


The burden on community pharmacists has dramatically increased since the COVID-19 pandemic, where the increased number of clients demands adhering to optimal infection protective measures. We aimed to investigate the level of adopted COVID-19 preventative measures by Lebanese community pharmacies and the influencing factors. One hundred community pharmacies in Beirut, were randomly selected and inspected by a simulated client. Signs of face-mask use, declaration of COVID-19 infection, and social distancing were observed in 62%, 48%, and 35% of pharmacies, respectively. Body temperature screening was absent. Only 20% of the pharmacies had limitations for the number of clients, and only 31% offered free disinfectants. Direct pharmacist-patient encounters were observed in 25% of pharmacies. Social distancing among pharmacists was practiced in only 8% of the pharmacies and 37% of pharmacists were not wearing facemasks. Female pharmacists, pharmacists > 40 years, and large pharmacies were associated with a significantly higher score than male pharmacists, younger pharmacists, and smaller pharmacies (‎6.13 ± 1.73‎ vs. ‎4.21 ± 1.70‎, P = 0.004; ‎6.27 ± 1.55‎ vs. ‎4.40 ± 1.75‎, P = 0.03; and ‎6.73 ± 1.66‎ vs. ‎4.1 ± 1.74‎, P = 0.01; respectively). The adherence level of Lebanese community pharmacies to COVID-19 preventive measures is unsatisfactory. The economic crisis in addition to poor pharmacy education about infection control could be behind this level. The authorities are advised to wisely allocate the available resources, strengthen the monitoring process, and revise the pharmacy curriculum to include infection control.

Author ORCID Identifier

Deema Rahme: 0000-0003-4245-9699

Rania Itani: 0000-0003-4316-3224

Samar Karout: 0000-0002-4750-6434

Hani M. J. Khojah: 0000-0002-0586-1526

Abdalla El-Lakany: 0000-0003-2122-2289



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