English Title



Prevalence, Cross Sectional Study, Temporomandibular Disorders, Orthodontic Treatment, DC/TMD Axis II


Dental Public Health and Education | Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Orthodontics and Orthodontology | Prosthodontics and Prosthodontology


Orthodontic treatment as a risk factor for the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been a controversy in literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of TMD, as defined in the Diagnostic Criteria (DC)/TMD Axis II, among orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional study (N=180) consisted of 3 groups: 60 control patients seeking orthodontic consultation, 60 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 3-5 months, 60 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 10-14 months. Patients answered a structured questionnaire that rated their oral parafunctions according to the Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC), pain intensity levels according to the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS), jaw functional limitations according to the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale 20 (JFLS-20), psychosocial factors (PHQ-9) and somatization levels (PHQ-15). The Chi Square test showed a statistically significant difference p-value=0.001 among both active orthodontic groups (3-5 months/10-14 months) regarding masticatory limitation (53.3%), vertical mobility limitation (41.7% for 3-5 months and 55.0% 10-14 months) and verbal & emotional expression limitation (53.3% 3-5 months and 66.7% 10-14 months). The findings revealed that as orthodontic treatment progresses, the limitation increases. Moreover, no statistical significance was observed between the three groups regarding oral parafunctional habits, chronic pain levels, psychosocial status and somatization. Orthodontic treatment is not a major factor associated with the symptoms of the TMD. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the true role of orthodontic treatment in the development of TMD.

Author ORCID Identifier

Manar Souhail Youssef - https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6652-8025

Ahmad Tarabaih - https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8350-0064

Aly Osman - https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1187-3646

figures.docx (62 kB)

Appendix 1.pdf (108 kB)
appendix 1

Appendix 2.pdf (238 kB)
appendix 2





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