outdoor lighting, artificial outdoor lighting, livability, urban heritage context, pedestrian paths, walkways.


Architectural Engineering | Architecture | Cultural Resource Management and Policy Analysis | Environmental Design | Historic Preservation and Conservation | Landscape Architecture


Lighting is an important ecological factor that influences individuals’ outdoor activities as well as the development of livable communities in cities. Artificial outdoor lighting is vital in improving the quality of urban open places throughout the nighttime and has a significant impact on the pedestrians' night-time perception and mental safety. This study aims to uncover whether outdoor lighting has indeed an effect on the livability of the pedestrian paths of a community and if so, what is the optimal design that fits an urban heritage setting. The research employs a mixed methods approach, where both qualitative and quantitative methods are used. The first part of the study, being qualitative, used a survey conducted in the historic region of the city of Batroun in Lebanon to collect data concerning what the paths’ users regard as important when it comes to artificial outdoor light design with concerns to perceived urban design qualities related to neighborhood livability. The second part of the study is based on simulations of proposals of outdoor artificial light using Dialux in order to find the design the most appropriate to the context of Batroun.

Author ORCID Identifier

Chirine Traboulsi-https://orcid.org/0009-0004-0206-0899

Aya Hassoun-https://orcid.org/0009-0003-6384-9300

Mostafa khalifa-https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5306-839X

Mary Felix-https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7060-6150





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